Total Quality Management-2A

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Assignment – A

Question 1. Effective leadership and organization culture are foundations of Total Quality Management. Discuss.

Question 2. Discuss the approaches of Deming, Juran and Crosby in managing quality. Compare the similarities and differences in their approach in a tabular form.

Question 3. What are the quality system requirements of ISO9001: 2000? Explain the quality principles based on which the quality system is developed.

Question 4. What are quality costs? Explain the different models for understanding quality costs.

Question 5. Write short notes on:
a) Seven basic tools of problem solving
b) Benchmarking
c) Six Sigma
d) BPR
e) Quality circles

Assignment – B

Question 1. What is Statistical quality control? Explain control charts for variables and attributes taking suitable examples.

Question 2. A structured approach is beneficial in implementing total quality. Explain the concept with the help of the model developed by Samuel Ho.

Question 3. Distinguish between
a) Quality and total quality
b) Quality control and Quality assurance
c) Online quality and Off-line quality
d) Kaizen and innovation
e) Adequacy audit and compliance audit

Case Study

Quality Management -Health Care

Founded in 1980 the New Central Hospital (NCH) is a privately owned 580 patient bed facility in south Delhi. The hospital has 753 employees and provides a broad range of health care services including emergency rooms; X-ray and laboratory facilities, maternity wards, intensive and cardiac care units and outpatient facilities. In 1997 the hospital began a series of advertisements in newspapers highlighting its capabilities including its doctors, friendliness of its support staff and its overall philosophy that its employees care about their work and their patients.

Quality health care is a goal that NCH had long professed. But it had never developed comprehensive and scientific means of asking customers to judge quality of care they receive. Past efforts to measure quality at NCH had largely ignored the perceptions of the customers-the patients, physicians and payers. Instead of formally considering customer judgments of quality the hospital had focused almost entirely on internal quality assessments made by the health professionals who operate the system.

The Board of NCH believed that the hospital needed to make the transformation from the current practice of attempting to ensure quality to measuring and improving the quality of care from both external customer perspective and internal provider perspective. Fueled by concerns in recent years cost and medical practice variation and by the demand of grater social responsibility, the hospital found an emerging demand by patients and payers that quality health care be provided at best value.

The Board of NCH believed that as the prices people pay in the future for given levels of service became more similar hospitals will be distinguished largely on the basis of their quality and value assessed by customers. The Board wanted accurate information about how its customers, not health care professionals judge the quality of care in the institution.

In February 1997 the hospital administrator Mr. Ravi called a meeting of the department heads to discuss the issue of quality. He began by asking, “Can we really deliver on our promises? Or are we in danger of failing to live up to the level of health care our patients expect, and are we loosing them? Some patients who leave NCH happy may have actually received poor treatment here. If we are serious about improving the quality of care we need more valid and reliable data on which to act. We need answers to specific quality related questions about activities that affect patients like admission, nursing, medical staff, daily cases and ancillary staff.

Question 1. Why is it important to get patient’s assessment about health care quality? Does a patient have the expertise to judge the health care he or she receives?

Question 2. How might a hospital measure quality?

Question 3. How can the value of a human life be included in the cost of quality control?

Question 4. Select one department in the hospital and elaborate how quality standards could be developed?

Assignment – C

1. Quality as understood in TQM context means
(a) Fitness for use
(b) Adherence to specification
(c) Zero defect manufacturing
(d) Meeting or exceeding customer needs and expectations

2. Internal customer means
(a) Next operator
(b) Customer within the country
(c) Service provider
(d) Management

3. Non value adding means that
(a) Has incurred least cost to execute
(b) Customer is unwilling to pay
(c) Non essential to organization
(d) None

4. Waste means
(a) Non essential
(b) Non value adding
(c) Not earning profit
(d) Difficult to implement

5. TQM is
(a) A statistical approach to quality
(b) Methods of capturing customer requirements
(c) Integrated approach to customer satisfaction
(d) Ensuring robust design

6. Purpose of existence of a organization is
(a) Vision
(b) Mission
(c) Values
(d) Goals

7. Which of the following is not a philosophy of TQM
(a) Customer focus
(b) Universal responsibility
(c) Inspection for compliance
(d) Continuous improvement

8. Which of the following is not a part of the eight dimensions of quality
(a) Reliability
(b) Durability
(c) Performance
(d) Capability

9. Quality trilogy is the contribution of
(a) Deming
(b) Juran
(c) Crosby
(d) Garvin

10. Which of the following is not a part of the four absolutes of quality as proposed by Crosby
(a) System of quality is prevention of defects
(b) Performance standard is zero defects
(c) Measurement of quality is cost of nonconformance
(d) Observe zero defects day to improve quality

11. Quality chain reaction is the contribution of
(a) Deming
(b) Juran
(c) Crosby
(d) Garvin

12. PAF model of quality costs is the contribution of
(a) Deming
(b) Juran
(c) Crosby
(d) Garvin

13. Which of the following is the contribution of Taguchi
(a) Quality Loss Function
(b) 80/20 rule
(c) PDCA cycle
(d) Do it right first time

14. Kaizen is the teaching of
(a) Imai
(b) Deming
(c) Ishikawa
(d) Juran

15. Cost incurred on quality audit is
(a) Prevention cost
(b) Internal failure cost
(c) Appraisal cost
(d) External failure cost

16. Warranty claims is
(a) External failure cost
(b) Internal failure cost
(c) Appraisal cost
(d) Prevention cost

17. What is a process
(a) It assures continuous improvement and employee participation
(b) It converts inputs into outputs
(c) Anything that satisfies customers
(d) Anything that causes change

18. Statistical process control is
(a) A technique for finding best settings on machines
(b) A method of ensuring consistent levels of product quality by monitoring the production process
(c) A way to identify and eliminate potential failure modes in an operation
(d) A means of ensuring that the voice of customer is considered at every stage of design and production

19. The application of statistical techniques to determine whether a quantity of material should be accepted or rejected based on the inspection or test of a sample is known as
(a) Specification review
(b) Acceptance sampling
(c) Statistical process control
(d) Benchmarking

20. To facilitate the identification, exploration and graphical display of possible causes of an effect we use
(a) Fishbone diagram
(b) Pareto chart
(c) Flow chart
(d) Check sheet

21. The quality tool used to identify the most relevant problem area is
(a) Cause & effect diagram
(b) Pareto analysis
(c) Histogram
(d) Run chart

22. The spread of a process can be easily understood by
(a) Flow chart
(b) Scatter diagram
(c) Ishikawa diagram
(d) Histogram

23. The quality tool used to understand a process is
(a) Check sheet
(b) Flow chart
(c) Histogram
(d) Run chart

24. Which of the following activities must be carried out by someone who has no direct responsibility for the work being carried out
(a) Contract review
(b) Inspection of a product
(c) Audit
(d) Training

25. Information, which can be proved true, based on facts obtained through observation, measurement or test is called
(a) Objective evidence
(b) Deficiency
(c) Non conformity report
(d) Validation report

26. A third party audit is
(a) An internal audit
(b) An audit by the customer
(c) An audit by an independent organization
(d) An audit by the buyer

27. Surveillance audit is carried out by
(a) Internal auditor
(b) Statutory auditor
(c) Certifying body
(d) Customer

28. A tool which addresses potential countermeasures is
(a) PDPC
(b) Interrelationship graph
(c) Arrow diagram
(d) affinity diagram

29. Samuel Ho is famous for
(a) PDCA cycle
(b) BPR
(c) TQMEX model
(d) Benchmarking

30. Which of the following is not a pillar of the TQMEX model
(a) Satisfying customers
(b) Improvement tools
(c) System/Process
(d) Top Management

31. EPDCA cycle means
(a) Excellence, Plan, Do, Check, Act
(b) Evaluate, Plan Do, Check, Amend
(c) Evolve, Plan, Do, Check, Act
(d) Edit, Plan, Do, Check, Amend

32. The objectives of Quality council are
(a) Provide strategic direction on TQM for the organization
(b) Set up and review the process quality teams that own the key critical process
(c) Review and revise quality plans for implementation
(d) All of the above

33. Appraisal costs are associated with
(a) Quality audits
(b) Re-work
(c) Calibration & maintenance of equipment
(d) Complaints

34. SPC is a tool kit that can answer which of the following questions
(a) Are we capable of doing the job correctly?
(b) Do we continue to do the job correctly?
(c) Have we done the job correctly?
(d) All of the above

35. A process is under control if
(a) The output is within specifications
(b) Variability due to assignable cause is eliminated
(c) Variability due to random causes is eliminated
(d) Machines are put under TPM
True or False

36. The purpose of quality manual is to state particularly for the benefit of assessor’s that how the requirements of ISO9000 are met in the company’s quality system
(a) True
(b) False

37. Total quality management is far more than shifting the responsibility of detection of problems from the customer to producer
(a) True
(b) False

38. Special process requires pre-qualification of the process capability
(a) True
(b) False

39. TQM is all about producing best quality of products
(a) True
(b) False

40. Design for six sigma (DFSS) is used for an existing product
(a) True b) False c) To product under development d) None of the above

 

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