Assignment – A
1. Explain the following terms:
(a) Economic analysis of technology.
(b) Technology and culture.
(c) Technology scanning.
(d) Technology Life Cycle
(e) The three axes of manufacturing activity.
2. What is technology? Define technology in all its dimensions.
3. Explain ‘Knowledge Embodied’ and ‘Knowledge Disembodied’ with minimum of three examples. Analyse how a company can access and acquire embodied knowledge and disembodied knowledge.
4. Discuss importance of the Strategic Management of Technology.
5. Discuss Crucial Issues in Flexible Technology.
Assignment – B
1. What do you understand by technology transfer? Prepare a check-list of activities that a company should involve and avoid while planning to do new technology.
2. What changes are required to be made to the Indian Patent Act of 1970 to bring it in line with WTO commitments?
3. Discuss briefly the Role, Rationale and Requisites of National Technology Policy.
TECHNOLOGY IN A FOREIGN INDUSTRY
Develop countries, with their high labour costs and strict environmental regulations translating to higher pollution related costs, began to put up the shutter of their forge shops due to noise and heat levels.
To make a forging, a piece of metal, mainly steel, usually hot, is worked into a predetermined shape like bots, fastners, crankshafts, flanges, gear blanks, railway wagon axels. Depending upon the type of pressure application used, forgings can either be hammer forging or press forgings, the latter being more sophisticated. In India, most forging units are equipped with hammers, they are much cheaper and do well for lower volumes. Depending upon the type of die used, forging can be closed die or open die. Closed die forgings are used to make smaller parts such as crankshafts and gear blanks, used mainly in auto sector. Open die forging are used to make the larger and heavier parts used in heavy machinery.
As per AIDFASI (Association of Indian Drop Forging and Stamping Industries) there are around 285 units in the steel forging industry with an aggregate installed capacity of 6.85 lakes TPA with another 300 tiny units producing low-tech forged components 1/5 of it is in open die forging and the rest in closed die. The organized sector has a major presence in the closed die segment where the quality requirements of OEM’s and export buyers are very stringent.
Global auto-makers are increasing their out-sourcing of components: general Motors- a $ 150 billion company, currently makes 70% of its required component in-house and plan to bring it down to 35% in the next few years.
Historically India has concentrated on the lower end of the market, now only there is increase in export of customized forgings. India has good engineering base, overheads are low and shops can make small requirements. Availability of raw materials, carbon and alloy steels is no longer problem. The wage rate here is 1/10 of developed countries. Problems are technology obsolescence, low material yield, low labour productivity and high fuel consumption. Over time, the advantages of lower labour costs could be negated by these factors. The competition is from China, Indonesia, Mexico & Brazil. Steels, which accepts for 60% of costs is relatively costlier, power and fuel costs are too higher. Technology upgradation is required t lower fuel consumption and improve material yield.
1. What is technology in a forging Industry?
2. What does technology upgradation mean in this case?
3. What mode of technology transfer would you recommend for technology upgradation?
Assignment – C
Q. (1-8) Match the followings:
|Mass Service Tech||Project Tech||Process Tech||Soft. Tech|
|Optimized Product Tech||Advanced Tech||Group Tech||New Technologies|
Choose from the above and fit in:
|Has life cycles related to product life cycles.||Deals with one of a kind of products that are tailored to the unique request of each customer.||Is a way of organizing and using data for components that have similar properties and manufacturing requests?||City School System.|
|Is a computer based system for planning production, material needs and resource allocation.||Is a continuous upgrading programme using optimized state-of-the art equipment and process||Refers to the application of computer Software and other aids that support managers of manufacturing and service organizations||Will reshape production planning and scheduling for vehicle operations throughout the world, resulting into greater productivity, safer highways, and conserved energy.|
Q. 9. Three axes of technology are given below. Choose and fit in:
Q. (10-14) Choose odd entity /entities, if any:
10. (a) manual tools
(b) special purpose machines
(c) computerized machines
(d) generalizing facts
(e) innovating abilities
11. (a) operating abilities
(b) producing abilities
(c) adapting abilities
(d) automatic machines
(e) industrial linkages
12. (a) describing facts
(b) familiarizing facts
(c) specifying facts
(d) integrated facilities
13. (a) individual linkages
(b) enterprise linkages
(c) national linkages
(d) improving abilities
14. (a) product planning
(b) application engineering
(c) product engineering
(d) vendor evaluation
Q. 15.Choose the right answer:
(a) Technology is constantly replenishable material resource.
(b) Technology generates wealth.
(c) Technology is a prime factor for domestic productivity
(d) Technology is the drive for new advances among academic business and government.
(e) Technology requires new managerial philosophy and practice.
(f) All above.
Q. 16. Cross
(X) the wrong statement (s):
India is an attraction to Foreign Partners because:
(a) India is a big market.
(b) Geographical diversity.
(c) A Sovereign Democratic Republic.
(d) A simple market.
Q. (17- 40) State True / False: Yes / No
17. After liberalization it is not necessary to seek Government permission for any type of Technological Agreements. T / F
18. Technology Strategy is the basis of Technology Management. T / F
19. R & D center is not necessary if a firm is following a technology leadership strategy. T/ F
20. While dealing with a single Japanese company, you are dealing with the whole of ‘Japan Incorporation’. T / F
21. Any document which goes into production system, should go through a Methods and System Division.. T/ F
22. For a Technology transfer, inclusion of an expert in Negotiation Language is so important. T/ F
23. It is said that while dealing with Japanese, “don’t be afraid of silences”. They say, “Those who know, do not speak; and those who do not know speak”. Y / N
24. Technology Assessment is essentially a technique for solving man made problems. Y/ N
25. Methodology of Technology Assessment include multivariate analysis and requires multivariate optimization, hence are very complex to analyse. T/ F
26. FDI (Foreign Direct Investments) usually are not meant for Technology Transfer. T /F
27 WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organisation) has prepared a Hand Book on acquisition of technology by developing countries. T / F
28. UNDP/UNIDO has developed a Licencing Guide for developing countries. T / F
29. In WCM (World Class Manufacturing), the fundamental functions of manufacturing are performed by the following systems in an integrated manner.
TQM > JIT > CIM T/ F
30. Taguchi methods provide a powerful means for isolating critical product design parameters that need to be controlled in the manufacturing process. T / F
31. QFD (Quality Function Deployment) is not a comprehensive scheme or framework for quality. T / F
32. Competitive strategy needs to be built on the transformation of business processes into strategic capabilities that consistently provide superior value to the customer. T / F
33. Among the core competencies and capabilities needed by a company, the commercialization of technology is not so crucial. T/ F
34. The corporate imagination needs to be channelised or guided along the following lines “Leading customers rather than simply following them”. T / F
35. Relatively flexible and loose nature of organization structure and teaming across functions and disciplines is highly relevant for Innovative World Class Manufacturing Enterprises. T / F
36. A Matrix Type of organization is best suited for Project Management T / F
37. IT has virtually no role to play in decision-making structures that integrate qualitative inputs from many people. T / F
38. TQM increases overall quality cost. T / F
39. A prime requisite for the competitiveness strategy, today, needs a radical change – away from structures and systems based on functions such as marking, inventory, and manufacturing towards work processes like: filling an order, developing a product or delivering a service. T / F
40. Centralised Command and Control are superior to Central goal-setting and coordination. T/ F