Fundamentals of Tourism
1. Define tourist, visitors and excursionist.
2. What do you understand by the term resources? Describe the different types of tourism resources.
3. Explain the different components of tourism
4. What do you mean by travel motivators? Describe the Peter’s inventory of tourism attractions.
5. Write short note on any three of the following.
b) Rural Tourism
c) Impacts of Tourism
6. Describe the 6 freedom of air as defined by ICAO.
7. Explain the natural resources of India as a tourism product.
8. Explain the role played by Thomas Cook in the development of Travel Agency Business.
Read the case study given below and answer the questions given at the end.
Informed and Inspired
Responsible tourism is growing fast. Everywhere there are signs that wilol play a crucial role in the future of travel and tourism. Undeniable, there’s a new kind of approach in the world, travel companies and destinations are taking more care of their product, keeping an eye on sustainability and working more closely with stakeholders.
Increasingly consumers are making ‘waves’ too, wanting a more ethical and caring industry that gives back – as well as takes. But because of its rapid rise, it’s difficult to keep up with what is going on around the world in responsible tourism.
LISTENING IS KEY
The uphill climb to encourage and motivate businesses to engage in responsible tourism cannot be underestimated.
Kerala, a state in south western India, is slowly winning the argument by showcasing what others have done.
Dr. Venu Vasudevan, Secretary of Kerala Tourism, outlines his ambitious and unusual approach.
Kerala kick started its responsible tourism initiative by listening to practitioners and experts, organising second International Conference on Responsible Tourism.
The conference gave the Kerala tourism department much clarity in approach and practice. Kerala’s responsible tourism strategy is based on a destination perspective quite different from the usual business oriented approaches adopted elsewhere.
We started with initiative in four destinations, where key stakeholders like local self government institutions, farmers groups, hoteliers, NGO’s and government agencies created frameworks for economic, cultural and environmental responsibility.
In the last two years, responsible tourism has gained acceptance in these destinations as a key player in local economic development, with significant linkages developing between the industry and local community.
We estimate that approximately €60,000 has benefited the local community from tourism through purchase of local produce and the use of services.
The assurance of a sustained local demand by hotels has enabled local governments to support farmers groups and landless women to take on agriculture, converting fallow land to productive fields. The relationship between hoteliers and the community has improved dramatically.
The initiative has been closely followed by the tourism industry, achieving across the templates that can be adopted by other destinations, motivating enterprises to embrace more responsible practices.
We will also continue our efforts to ensure that the benefits of tourism development in an emerging destination like Kerala reach local communities, particularly the poor.
We call our four destinations our RT ‘laboratories’, giving us a great opportunity to help hoteliers and tour operators recognise the advantages of reaching out to the community. It’s also meant that responsible tourism practice has been discusses and debated across the state, giving me great hope about the future. I can see a majority of tourism business engaging in responsible tourism in a phased manner.
As responsible tourism goes mainstream, the issues of environmental and social responsibility have been placed firmly on the agendas of global company boards.
But the myth remains that it is only small specialist companies that have adopted a responsible tourism strategy.
‘Not so’ says Stephen Farrant, Director of the International Tourism Partnership, which is driving the international responsible business agenda. He tells how major global travel and tourism companies have set themselves ambitious targets.
In a relatively short space of time, responsible tourism has moved from niche to mainstream. The issues of environmental and social responsibility have now been placed firmly on the agendas of the Boards of many global companies, and are increasingly being embedded into core business strategy and reporting systems.
Major businesses are showing leadership in committing to significant reductions in theri overall environmental impact.
To choose just a handful of examples, Fairmont Hotels and Resorts are targeting a 20% reduction (on 2006 levels) in operational CO2 emissions by 2013, NH Hotels is aiming for a 20% reduction in water, waste and energy by 2012 (on 2007 levels) and Marriott is reducing its carbon footprint by 25% by 2017 through energy conservation.
Whitebread has pledged to reduce carbon emissions by 26% by 2020, IHG (through its “Green Engage” system) is hoping to achieve energy savings of up to 25% across its portfolio of hotels globally and Starwood has just announced a 30% reduction in energy use and a 20% decrease in water consumption per available room by 2020.
And through organisations such as the International Tourism Partnership, business leaders make an ongoing commitment to shared learning and practical collaboration in his endeavour.
The International Tourism Partnership has a strong role to play in highlighting best practice in sustainability within the hotels sector, and in pressing the case for further change if the industry is to thrive into the longer term.
Most of the measures that are either being planned by the industry or that are already in place point to incremental change over a number of years. Examples of system-wide “disruptive innovation” that re-define the basic business model (built on assumptions of continual volume growth) are harder to find.
As customers, employees, business partners and investors increasingly look for evidence of environmental and social responsibility, there remains a real challenge in not only sifting the genuine from the “green washing”, but also in making meaningful comparisons across the industry on a like-for-like basis.
Firstly, creating an open, informed, and transparent marketplace in which “apples can be compared with apples”
And secondly, continuing to encourage collaboration and learning so as to help identify the next game-changing “disruptive innovation” that will take us beyond merely incremental progress towards genuine sustainability.
1. Explain how responsible tourism plays a role in the development of a destination.
2. Describe the advantages of responsible tourism to the destination
3. Discuss how Kerala gained through the responsible tourism strategy.
Answer all questions
Tick Mark (√) the most appropriate answer
1. Which is the first privately built International Airport of India?
a) Gopinath Bardolai International Airport
b) Nedumbassery International Airport
c) Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport
d) Netaji Subash Chandra Bose International Airport
2. Which city in India is famous for the Dussehra Festival?
3. Which one of the following is a World Heritage Site?
4. Identify an International franchise hotel chain
b) ITC Welcome
d) Lemon Tree
5. Classification of hotels are the carried out by
a) Department of Tourism, Government of India
b) Federation of Hotel and Restaurant Association of India
d) State department of Tourism
6. A record in which passenger reservation data is stored
7. Which one of the following is not a Special Tourism Area (STA)?
c) Puri Konark Marine Drive
8. Tourist Visa is valid for how many days in India?
a) 30 days
b) 60 days
c) 90 days
d) 180 days
9. Which hill station is not served by Toy Train?
c) Mount Abu
10. What is the Phobia (fear) of travel?
11. A document issued by a travel agency or vendor authorizing transportation or some other travel service to a specified person
a) Amenities voucher
b) Miscellaneous charges order
d) Saver pass
12. Which is the longest train service in India?
a) Him Sagar Express
b) Kerala Express
c) Vivek Express
d) Varanasi Chennai Express
13. Which is not a major seaport on Eastern Coast of India?
14. The largest Tiger reserve ‘NAgarjuna-Srisailam’ Tiger reserve is located in
a) Tamil Nadu
c) Andhra Pradesh
15. Which International agency provides funds for Endogenous Toruism projects
16. A ‘pass’ entitling the holder to unlimited rail travel throughout England, Scotland and Wales is known as
a) Eurail pass
b) Britrail pass
c) Indrail pass
d) Travel pass
17. Who is the youngest Indian mountaineer to climb Mt. Everest till 2011.
a) Arjun Vajpai
b) A.B. Vajpai
c) Anil Vajpai
d) Arjit Vajpai
18. The famous Meenakshi Temple is situated in
19. In how many countries ‘Schengen Visa’ is valid?
20. During which plan period “Tourism” was awarded the status of an Industry?
a) 5th Five Year Plan
b) 8th Five Year Plan
c) 4th Five Year Plan
d) 7th Five Year Plan
21. In which year the Government of India introduced National Action Plan?
22. To distinguish between a tourist and an excursionist what should be the duration of tour.
a) 12 hours
b) 14 hours
c) 16 hours
d) 24 hours
23. Which national is not given “Visa-on-arrival” in India.
b) New Zealand
24. Which is not a skiing resort?
25. What is Sagarmatha?
a) National Park
b) Mount Everest
c) Bird Sanctuary
d) Tiger Reserve
26. White water rafting is an
a) Adventure Motivator
b) Spiritual Motivator
c) Leisure Motivator
d) Ego Motivator
27. Eco Tourism is
a) Ecologically sensitive Tourism
b) Economically sensitive Tourism
c) Ego sensitive Tourism
d) Effluent sensitive Tourism
28. Package tour is a
a) Tourism Product
b) Tourism destination
c) Tourism By Product
d) Tourism component
29. Domestic tourism embraces those travelling
a) Within the country
b) Outside the country
c) Within the island
d) Outside the island
30. The full form of PATA is
a) Pacific Asia Travel Assocaition
b) Pacific Area Travel Assocation
c) Pacific Arena Travel Association
d) Pacific Aroma Travel Assocaition
31. Nilgiri Hills are also known as
a) Blue Mountains
b) Red Mountains
c) Green Mountains
d) Brown Mountains
32. The first national park of India is
a) Jim Corbett
33. Travel agent is a
a) Retailer of the tourism products
b) Wholesaler of the tourism products
d) None of the above
34. Which state in India initiated Caravan Tourism
a) Madhya Pradesh
35. Outbound tourism means
a) Coming to a country
b) Going out of the country
d) None of the above
36. Hailey National park is also known as
a) Kanha National Park
b) Periyar Tiger Reserve
c) Rajaji National Park
d) Corbett National Park
37. Gateway of India is in
38. VISA stand for
a) Visitors Intended to Stay Abroad
b) Visitors Interested to Stay Abroad
c) Visitors Inevitably Staying Abroad
d) Visitors Increase to Stay Abroad
39. Passport of a person identifies
40. American Tourist coming to India is
a) Inbound for India
b) Inbound for America
c) Outbound for India
d) None of the above