Environment Management-2

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Assignment – A

Question 1. Explain what is industrial ecology? How can you implement the concept of industrial ecology in any organization?

Question 2. How can environmental management help achieve sustainable growth?

Question 3. How TQM can help in achieving targets of environmental management?

Question 4. Write a note on Global Environmental Problems, and what should be the role of an individual in solving them?

Question 5. Write short note on any three of the following.
a. Basic principles of ISO 14000.
b. Role of Environmental Audit.
c. Sustainable Development
d. Environmental Laws in Indian context
e. Fly Ash Utilization in thermal power stations.

Assignment – B

Question 1. What do you understand by Carbon Credits? How carbon credits can help companies increase their earnings?

Question 2. What are the major issues discussed under Kyoto Protocol? What are the various mechanisms under Kyoto Protocol and which among these is of use to developing countries and how?

Question 3. What do you understand by air pollution, what are the major causes of air pollution in India? Explain the initiatives taken by Indian Government in this regard for controlling the air pollution in cities?

Case Study

Economy & Ecology

Question: The hills of Ranikhet situated in the state of Utranchal a part of Kumaun hills, have a scenic beauty and support many of the species of flora and fauna, the small rivulets and springs create a splendid environment. The forests also have some of the exotic species of flowers and a range of medicinal plants. The local community lives a simple life dependent on the tourism and the forests for the medicinal plants and other minor forest products. The biodiversity of Ranikhet is well protected from the external influences and the anthropocentric activities.

Question: The new government plans to encourage tourism sector and related infrastructure growth aimed at economic and industrial development of the area through promoting Ranikhet as tourist destination and licensing industrial establishments in Ranikhet. Government is proposing to set up star hotels and travel agencies and granting licenses to manufacturing companies to establish their plants in Ranikhet with the special tax subsidies for period of 5 years. According to the preliminary estimates it is hoped to achieve approximately 27% increase in the earning through creating employment opportunities and improving the local economic standards. Government has invited various large organizations to participate in the projects, and everyone is looking with great expectations.

Question a) What are the implications of such projects on the ecosystem of the Ranikhet?

Question b) Do you think EIA is necessary? If yes how will you conduct the EIA for the above projects

Question c) How can you use tourism to uplift the local community without disturbing the ecology of the place

Question d) Setting up of manufacturing plants to bring development is right strategy? Comment.

Assignment – C

1. Place where an organism lives under natural condition–
(a) Forest.
(b) Ecosystem.
(c) Habitat.
(d) Environment.

2. Communities and population living together and interacting with physical and chemical elements of their environment–
(a) Environment.
(b) Ecosystem.
(c) Habitat.
(d) Surroundings.

3. The transfer of food and nutrition from its sources through a series of organism by way of eating and being eaten away is known as–
(a) Food Cycle.
(b) Food Chain.
(c) Food link.
(d) Nutrition Cycle.

4. Industrial ecology–
(a) Works similar to biological ecosystem.
(b) Is based on principle of recycling of the materials and regeneration of it.
(c) Is based on the study of acquiring the material, processing using and disposing of the product manufactured by a company.
(d) All the above.

5. Rain water harvesting is a technique to–
(a) Harvest the fields with rain water.
(b) Collect the rain water in tanks for future use.
(c) Collect the rain water and drain in the rivers.
(d) Let pass the rain water to underground to increase the water table.

6. Carbon foot printing is–
(a) The set of green houses gas emissions caused by an organization, event or production.
(b) The carbon dioxide emissions caused by an organization, event or production.
(c) The damage to environment done by the organization, event or production.
(d) None of the above.

7. One carbon credit is–
(a) One ton of carbon dioxide emitted in the environment by an organization by any of its activities
(b) One ton of carbon dioxide emission or equivalent GHG emission reduced by the organization in any of its activities.
(c) Selling of coal in the market by developing nation to develop nations on credit
(d) Total amount of Carbon dioxide emitted by the organization in a period.

8. Global warming is–
(a) Increase in the average temperature of earth due to changes in climate.
(b) Increase in the average temperature of earth due to increase in burning of fossil fuel.
(c) Increase in the average temperature of earth due to increase in Green House Gases in the environment due to human activities.
(d) Increase in the average temperature of earth due to wars.

9. Ozone gas is–
(a) A compound of oxygen having the formula O3, toxic in nature and covers thinly the stratosphere of earth and absorbs the harmful effect of UV B rays coming from sun.
(b) A compound of oxygen having the formula O2, covers thinly the stratosphere of earth and absorbs the harmful effect of UV B rays coming from sun.
(c) A compound of oxygen having the formula O3, present in the lower levels of atmosphere and absorbs the harmful effect of UV B rays coming from sun.
(d) A compound of oxygen which is required for breathing for living organism.

10. Green house effect is–
(a) The increase in temperature due to excessive solar energy entering the earth due to ozone hole.
(b) The increase in temperature due to excessive burning of fuel for the generation of power.
(c) The gases like methane, carbon oxide absorbing the radiated infra rays from earth and decreasing the out flow of heat energy from earth’s atmosphere thereby increasing the temperature.
(d) A house covered from outside to insulate and protect the temperature of the room.

11. The Kyoto Protocol was signed–
(a) To reduce the GHG green house gas emissions by the nation causing global warming.
(b) To phase out production and use of ODS ozone depletion substance mainly cfcs’.
(c) To regulate the cross border movement of Hazardous waste.
(d) To sign the agreement of GATT.

12. EIA involves–
(a) Assessment of existing environment, analysis of various factors of ecosystem and adverse impact of the project on it and on the people of the surrounding.
(b) Assessment of the economic and social benefits which a project will yield after implementation.
(c) Assessment of the impact of the proposed project on the environment in general sense.
(d) Assessment of the impact of the proposed project on the habitats of the animals living nearby.

13. Paul Erlich equation for environmental impact, I = PxAxT where I = impact on environment and P, A and T stands for–
(a) Population, Atmosphere and Temperature.
(b) Population, Affluence (consumption) and Technology coefficient.
(c) Population, Affluence and Temperature.
(d) Population Atmosphere and Technology coefficient.

14. Non conventional resources of energy are–
(a) Energy sources like fossil fuel and coal, which are available as deposits under earth.
(b) All energy sources which are exhaustible in nature and scarce available.
(c) Sources of energy which can be used again and again without getting exhausted like water energy, solar energy, wind energy etc.
(d) None of the above.

15. The benefits of Environment Assessment are–
(a) Increased project acceptance.
(b) Avoided impacts and violations of laws and regulations.
(c) Improved project performance.
(d) Avoided treatment/clean up costs.
(e) All the above.

16. EMS Environment Management System can be defined as–
(a) Comprehensive, organized and documented system for an organization to manage all its actions that effect environment.
(b) Certification by any environmental agencies to show itself as environmental friendly organization.
(c) Marketing only green/ environmental products.
(d) A system to find impact of environment on the organization.

17. The problem arising due to construction of Dam or Reservoir is–
(a) Changes in downstream morphology of riverbed and banks, delta, estuary and coastline due to altered sediment load.
(b) Changes in downstream water quality: effects on river temperature, nutrient load, turbidity, dissolved gases, concentration of heavy metals and minerals.
(c) Reduction of biodiversity due to blocking of movement of organisms.
(d) All the above.

18. Basel convention deals with–
(a) The level of air pollution of the metro cities of the world.
(b) The transboundary movement of Hazardous Waste and their Disposal.
(c) The transboundary movement of Ozone Depletion Substance ODS across the world.
(d) Non proliferation of nuclear technology across the world.

19. The Montreal Protocol was signed–
(a) To reduce the GHG green house gas emissions by the nation causing global warming.
(b) To phase out production and use of ozone depletion substance mainly CFCs’.
(c) To regulate the cross border movement of Hazardous waste.
(d) To sign the agreement GATT.

20. ISO 14000 deals with–
(a) General guidelines on principles of EMS.
(b) Guideline for environmental auditing or General principle of auditing.
(c) Guidelines for certification.
(d) Life cycle assessment.

21. To facilitate participation of developing nations in Kyoto Protocol the concept of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was adopted which is–
(a) The developed nations will help the developing nations in reducing their carbon emission.
(b) The developed nations will finance equipment, bring investment to the developing nation so that they can develop them.
(c) The developed nations will finance equipment, bring investment in the developing nation for infrastructure, water and forest conservation and in exchange they will receive the credit of environment protection by carbon credits gained by the developing nations.
(d) The developed nations will finance developing nations in reducing GHG gases so as to reduce global warming.

22. Landfill is a place where–
(a) Usually the biodegradable waste is dumped and it decomposes in to store of manure.
(b) Any kind of waste is dumped and is left there as place for disposal was not available.
(c) There is deep trench and waste is used to fill the trench.
(d) The water resource is filled by waste to create land.

23. Incineration is a process–
(a) Of burning solid waste to reduce it to ashes, thereby using its volume.
(b) Of treatment of waste water before disposal.
(c) Of compressing solid waste under soil to convert it into manure.
(d) All of the above.

24. The two major causes of air pollution in India are–
(a) Transport and households.
(b) Transport and power generation.
(c) Industry and house holds.
(d) Transport and agriculture.

25. Recycling of material has following benefits–
(a) Reduction in waste.
(b) Reduction in waste and ecological impact.
(c) Reduction in waste, ecological impact, cost of production.
(d) Reduction in waste, ecological impact, cost of production and increased in customer satisfaction due to improved reputation.

26. Minamata disease is caused by the pollution of–
(a) Arsenic
(b) Lead
(c) Mercury
(d) Copper

27. Carbon dioxide, Methane, Chlorofluorocarbons and Nitrous Oxide represent the group:
(a) Ozone Depleting Substance
(b) Green House Gases
(c) Suspended Particulate Matter
(d) None of the above

28. Biogas is fuel generated by–
(a) Activity of aerobic bacteria on biodegradable waste, the main gas is Hydrogen
(b) Activity of anaerobic bacteria on biodegradable waste like cow dung etc, the main gas is methane
(c) Natural gas extracted from the petroleum refining process
(d) Burning of fossil fuel like coal etc

29. The harmful effect of UV rays entering earth’s atmosphere due to ozone depletion–
(a) Increase in average temperature of earth
(b) Skin cancer and cataract in humans and damage in photosynthesis process of plants
(c) Skin cancer and cataract in humans and increase in the average temperature of the earth
(d) None of the above

30. The characteristics of any ecological system is–
(a) Static, diverse and self regulating
(b) Dynamic, diverse and self regulating
(c) Dynamic, fixed and controlled by external factors
(d) Dynamic and diverse but can not have self regulating mechanism

31. The objective of Earth Summit 1992 held in Rio de Janeiro was–
(a) Environment and sustainable development
(b) Poverty as well as excessive consumption by affluent population damaging environment
(c) To create awareness about the fact that economic development should not be on the cost of environmental costs
(d) All the above

32. Agenda 21 is the document signed–
(a) At Kyoto by nations to control of Green House Gas emissions
(b) At Montreal by nations to control of Ozone Depleting Substances
(c) At Rio by nations to act in the areas of sustainable development
(d) At Johannesburg by nations to act for controlling trade of hazardous wastes

33: The major reason of environmental problems is related to population growth, the major reasons for population growth are–
(a) Increase in the birthrate, lifespan due to better nutrition and health services, decrease in mortality rate.
(b) Decrease in the birth rate, improved health services, decrease in child mortality rate and increase in lifespan due to better nutrition.
(c) Increased in birthrate and decrease in child mortality rate, improved health services.
(d) Increase in birthrate and increased life span.

34. Environmental Accounting is a process which involves–
(a) To ascertain the impact of environment on the balance sheet of the organization.
(b) To identify the stages in lca( life cycle assessment) for cost reduction.
(c) To allocate the environmental costs in the process of fixing prices of the product and services.
(d) To support sustainable practices in business.
(e) All the above.

35. Total quality management can help the company achieving its environmental targets by–
(a) Improving the quality of goods and services and reducing costs of operation
(b) By improving the processes of manufacturing at all level and improving quality of goods and services , reducing costs of operation, reducing wastages and finding better means of production
(c) Standardizing the processes to achieve consistent performance there by reducing costs of operation.
(d) Only a marketing gimmick and an operational strategy doesn’t hold any commitment to environmental management

36. Environmental protection industry is the industry–
(a) Manufacturing, marketing in Technology, machinery or tools or equipments required by industry/ individual in reducing environmental impact or pollution.
(b) Companies implementing Environmental Management Systems.
(c) NGO creating awareness in the society towards environmental concerns
(d) Companies trying to protect environment by manufacturing or marketing green products.

37. Photosynthesis is process–
(a) Light energy is captured by solar cell which can be converted in to electricity.
(b) Solar energy is used by the plants in synthesis of water and carbon dioxide to generate food for itself.
(c) Light energy absorbed by green house gases which maintain the temperature of the earth.
(d) All of the above.

38. The maximum store of potable water is locked in–
(a) Glaciers at the north and South Pole.
(b) Rivers.
(c) Sea and oceans.
(d) Ground water.

39. Organic agricultural products are those products–
(a) Which are cultivated with the help of organic manure
(b) Which are cultivated without the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, weedicides etc?
(c) Which are gathered from jungles
(d) Which are cultivated only with the help of rain water, without the use of pesticides and weedicides

40. Hazardous waste coming from hospital and other health service industry is known as–
(a) Toxic waste
(b) Biological solid waste
(c) Biomedical waste
(d) Solid Municipal Waste