Management Function and Behavior

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Answer any three answer
Q1. Discuss whether you need any control when everything is going as planned.
Q2. Define organisational structure and explain with suitable examples, how structure and productivity can be linked to each other.
Q3. Define and differentiate between centralisation and decentralisation of authority. Critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the two systems in organisational context.
Q4. Write short notes on any three of the following : (i) Delphi technique (i) Johari Window (iii) Democratic vs Laissez-Faire (iv) Semantic barrier (v) Informal groups
Q5. What are the various determinants of organizational culture? How does leadership influence the culture of an organisation

CASE STUDY
Ms. Subhashini had graduated with a degree in foreign languages. As the child of a military family, she had visited many parts of the world and had traveled extensively in Europe. Despite these broadening experiences, she had never given much thought to a career until her recent divorce from Mr. Srinivas.
Needing to provide her own income, Ms. Subhashini began to look for work. After a fairly intense but unsuccessful search for a job related to her foreign language degree, she began to evaluate her other skills. She had become a proficient typist in college and decided to look into secretarial work. Although she still wanted a career utilizing her foreign language skills, she felt that the immediate financial pressures would be eased in a temporary secretarial position.
Within a short period of time, she was hired as a clerk/typist in a typing pool at Life Insurance Company. Six months later, she became the top typist in the pool and was assigned as secretary to Mrs. Arora, manager of marketing research. She was pleased to get out of the pool and to get a job that had more variety in the tasks to perform. Besides, she also got a nice raise in pay.
Everything seemed to proceed will for the next nine months. Mrs. Arora was pleased with Subhashini’s work, and she seemed happy with her work. Subhashini applied for a few other more professional jobs in other areas during this time. However, each time her application was rejected for lack of related education and/or experience in the area.
Over the next few months, Arora noticed changes in Subhashini. She did not always dress as neatly as she had in the past, she was occasionally late for work, some of her lunches extended to two hours, and most of her productive work was done in the morning hours. Arora did not wish to say anything because Subhashini had been doing an excellent job and her job tasks still were being accomplished on time. However, Subhashini’s job behavior continued to worsen. She began to be absent frequently on Mondays or Fridays. The two-hour lunch periods became standard, and her work performance began to deteriorate. In addition, Arora began to suspect that Subhashini was drinking heavily, due to her appearance some mornings and behavior after her two-hour lunches.
Arora decided that she must confront Subhashini with the problem. However, she wanted to find a way to help her without losing a valuable employee. Before she could set up a meeting, Subhashini burst through her door after lunch one day and said :
“I want to talk to you Mrs. Arora.”
“That’s fine,” Arora replied, “ Shall we set a convenient time?”
“No ! I want to talk now.”
“OK, why don’t you sit down and let’s talk?”
Arora noticed that Subhashini was slurring her words slightly and she was not too steady.
“Mrs. Arora, I need some vacation time.”
“I’m sure we can work that out. You’ve been with the company for over a year and have two weeks’ vacation coming.”
“No, you don’t understand. I want to start it tomorrow.”
“But, Subhashini, we need to plan to get a temporary replacement. We can’t just let your job go for two weeks.”
“Why not? Anyway anyone with an IQ above 50 can do my job. Besides, I need the time off.”
“Subhashini, are you sure you are all right?”
“Yes, I just need some time away from the job.”
Arora decided to let Subhashini have the vacation, which would allow her some time to decide what to do about the situation.
Arora thought about the situation the next couple of days. It was possible that Subhashini was an alcoholic. Hoever, she also seemed to have a negative reaction to her job. Maybe Subhashini was bored with her job. She did not have the experience or job skills to move to a different type of job at present. Arora decided to meet with the Personnel Manager and get some help developing her options to deal with Subhashini’s problem.
Q1. What is the problem in your opinion? Elaborate.
Q2. Assume that you are the Personnel Manager. What are the alternatives available with Mrs. Arora
Q3. What do you consider the best alternative? Why?

Assignment – C

Q1: The plan which is made for routine and repeating situations and is known as the audit process is called:
a. The general plan
b. The strategic plan
c. The standing plan
d. The tactical plan.

Q2: According to modern organizational theory approach:
a. Organization is a rigid group of people trying to change according to the changing business environment.
b. Organization is integrated system which is flexible in its functioning which adopts to different management system as per the requirement of business.
c. Organization is teams of people who are trying to achieve personal targets through the organizational setting.
d. Organization is system which interacts with its environment.

Q3: The MBO means:
a. Management by organizing.
b. Management by orientation.
c. Management by objectives.
d. Marketing by objective.

Q4: Transactional Analysis was developed by:
a. Renis Likert.
b. Mintzberg.
c. Eric Berne.
d. None of the above.

Q5: The planning which is done with long term perspective is known as:
a. Tactical Planning
b. Strategic Planning
c. Ad hoc planning
d. None of the above.

Q6: Steps of management are in the following sequence
a. “Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Planning”
b. “Planning, organizing, directing, controlling, staffing”
c. “Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Controlling”
d. “Staffing, Directing, Planning, Controlling, Organizing”

Q7: The grapevine communication means:
a. Supervisor giving instructions to juniors.
b. It is not the formal channel of communication and does not have a clear pattern of communication.
c. A method of non verbal communication.
d. A method of communicating grievances in the organization.

Q8: The social learning theory of learning was given by:
a. B F Skinner.
b. Bandura.
c. Ivan Pavlov.
d. Maslow.

Q9: The Hawthorne experiment proved that:
a. The increase in light in work place results in increased productivity
b. If you allow the worker to talk more there will be increase in productivity
c. The productivity increased due to special attention and participation of worker In decision making
d. The productivity increased due to the close supervision.

Q10: F.W. Taylor promoted the concept of scientific management which is a:
a. Concept of management where the work is done by emphasizing on specialization to Increase efficiency
b. Concept of management where the people skills and their motivation drivers are used to increase efficiency
c. Concept of management where participation between the worker and the management is the key driver for the efficiency
d. Concept of management where full liberty is given to the worker so that there will be less supervision resulting into efficiency.

Q11: Formal organization variable consists of:
a. “Organizational structure, management processes and technology.”
b. “People, structure, technology, and external social system.”
c. “Productivity, absenteeism, turnover and job satisfaction.”
d. None of the above.

Q12: One of the assumptions of Theory Y is:
a. The normal human being intrinsically dislikes work and attempts to avoid it if he can do so.
b. Human beings have a hierarchy of needs.
c. People are governed by self-direction and self-control.
d. People need to be coerced or manipulated to produce higher productivity.

Q13: The reinforcement theory of learning was given by:
a. B F Skinner.
b. Likert.
c. Bandura.
d. None of the above.

Q14: Expectancy theory of motivation was given by:
a. Maslow.
b. Herzberg.
c. Vroom.
d. Adam.

Q15: Tactical decision is a decision:
a. For ling term planning of the organization.
b. A regular decision taken when subject to day to day problems.
c. Decision taken when some particular situation arises.
d. Decision which is taken by a committee.

Q16: Directing is an activity by which a manager:
a. Manager delegates responsibility to his subordinates to accomplish desired organizational objectives.
b. “Manager guides, motivates, leads and supervises employees to accomplish desired organizational objectives.”
c. Manager monitors the work and keeps a check on the activities of the organization.
d. All of the above.

Q17: The management by exception principle means:
a. The managers are informed about the significant deviations only so that managers have sufficient time for other significant activities related to the business.
b. The managers are informed about deviation so that managers have full information about all activities of the business.
c. The manager directly dealing with the department should not be a part of the control mechanism.
d. None of the above.

Q18: According to Frederick W Taylor s Scientific Management system:
a. There is no best method of doing things hence let the worker select the method of doing things.
b. There is one best method of doing things and so the tasks should be standardized so that suitable worker can be matched.
c. There is one best method of doing things and management should apply carrot and stick approach to make worker understand that this method should be adopted by them.
d. None of the above is correct.

Q19: The carrot and stick theory of motivation is related to:
a. Theory X
b. Theory Y
c. Maslow s recent assumptions about human motivation.
d. ERG theory of human motivation.

Q20: According to system approach to organization:
a. Organization is a system of integrated components which is inter dependent and interrelated with each other for its functioning.
b. Organization can be understood with the help of computerized system.
c. Organization is a closed system where outside environment has limited effect.
d. All of the above are correct.

Q21: “Need for power, need for achievement and need for affiliation is a motivational theory conceptualized by _________________”
a. Maslow
b. McGreyor
c. Mcclelland
d. Heszberg’s

Q22: Interpersonal conflict refers to
a. Conflict between two or more individuals
b. Conflict within the individual
c. Conflict which is within a group
d. Conflict between two or more groups

Q23: Transactional Analysis is developed by
a. Reins likert
b. Mintzberg
c. Eric Berne
d. None of the above

Q24: Freud believed that the majority of what we experience in our lives is not available to us at a ______________ level.
a. Preconscious level
b. Unconscious level
c. Conscious level
d. None of the avove

Q25: _______________is a method of solving problems and forming alternative courses of action through informal discussion among members.
a. Procrastinations
b. Brainstorming
c. Delphi technique
d. None of the above

Q26: __________is a personality where a person is more aware of his or her inner world.
a. Extrovert
b. Introvert
c. Both a&b
d. None of the above

Q27: __________________is one of the tools developed by behavioral scientists which is used for understanding of communications that occur between people.
a. Structural model
b. Topographical model
c. Transactional analysis
d. None of the above

Q28: Ivan Pavlov is famous for his work on
a. Reinforcement theory
b. Classical conditioning
c. Experiential learning theory
d. None of the above

Q29: The reinforcement theory of learning is given by
a. B F Skinner
b. Likert
c. Bandura
d. None of the above

Q30: Path Goal Theory of Leadership is given by
a. Renis Likert
b. Robert House
c. Fiedler
d. George Graen

Q31: Herzberg’s two-factor theory is based on
a. Hygiene factor
b. Motivators
c. Self actualization needs
d. Both a &b

Q32: Conflict helps to
a. Improves productivity
b. encourages competition
c. Both a&b
d. none of the above

Q33: A group of decision making process used by the decision makers from different physical locations is called as
a. Delphi technique
b. Brainstorming
c. Dialectical inquiry
d. None of the above

Q34: Expectancy theory of motivation is given by
a. Maslow
b. Herzberg
c. Vroom
d. Adam

Q35: The stages of group development are:
a. “Norming, storming, performing, Forming, adjourning”
b. “Forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning”
c. “Performing, storming, Forming, norming, , adjourning”
d. “Storming, norming, performing, adjourning Forming”

Q36: Power can be defined as
a. It is the ability to influence the behavior or actions of others
b. “It s the ability to influence the behavior or actions of others, without even considerations to willingness of others.”
c. Power is only the authority vested in the individual by the organisation to conduct his duties & responsibilities.
d. The influence a person has on others because of his manipulative behaviors.

Q37: ___________ is a way to understand things around us and define the world.
a. Leaning
b. Communication
c. Perception
d. None of the above

Q38: ____________ is the relatively permanent set of psychological and physical behavioral attributes that makes a person distinctive from others.
a. Personality
b. Learning
c. Motivation
d. Perception

Q39: The Grapevine communication means
a. Supervisor giving instructions to juniors
b. It is not the formal channel of communication and has not clear pattern of communication.
c. A method of non verbal communication
d. A method of communicating grievances in organization

Q40: The term ____________in transactional analysis refers to appreciating or giving the kind of recognition to a person.
a. Life positions
b. Strokes
c. Topographical model
d. None of the abovec. Topographical model

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