Management of Financial Institutions-1A

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Section A

1. Why do the banks borrow funds, besides accepting deposits? Discuss in detail the various sources from where banks can borrow funds within India.

2. What do you understand by commercial banks? What are the primary functions of a commercial bank?

3. Write a Short note on:

a) NBFC

b) Bancassurance

c) Risk Based Supervision

d) Types of money

4. Comment over role of financial Intermediaries in economic development & present evolution of financial institutions.

5. What are the criteria of selecting a borrower? Explain the principles of lending.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section B

 

 

 

6. Write a detailed note on Developmental Financial Institutions.

7. Briefly explain the framework of Insurance Institutions. Describe Deposit Insurance in detail.

8. Differentiate: (i) Netting & pooling of funds (ii) Credit Substitution & Delegation (iii) Universal Banking & International Banking (iv) Retail and wholesale banking

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CASE STUDY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MICRO FINANCE

The New Mantra of Rural Finance to Reduce Poverty

 

The rural finance policy pursued in most developing countries beginning from 1950s was based on providing subsidized credit through state controlled or directed institutions to rural segments of population. The key problem areas visualized in rural financial markets includes- lack of credit in rural areas, absence of modern technology in agriculture, low savings capacity in rural areas and prevalence of usurious moneylenders. Emergence of micro credit in late 1970s and early 1980s in the backdrop of growing world attention on deficiencies of earlier approach in rural finance explains much of its dominant theoretical underpinnings.

Microfinance refers to providing loans and finance to poor people for self-employment. Generally, small amounts are disbursed as loans, and the timeframe for repayment of loans is longer compared to commercial banks. Together with providing financial services, many microfinance institutions work for social development in the areas in which they operate.

Microfinance institutions generally have the following characteristics: l Providing small loans for the working capital requirements of the rural poor. l Minimal appraisal of borrowers and investments as compared to commercial banks. l No collateral demanded; however, these institutions impose compulsory savings and group guarantees. l Based on the loan repayment history of the members, microfinance institutions extend larger loans to the members repeatedly.

Though microfinance institutions provide the necessary monetary support and try to increase social awareness among their members, their activities do not include providing training for basic skills required for doing business. They do not extend any marketing facilities nor undertake activities to improve the literacy rate and health conditions of members (http://en.wikipedia.org).

 

 

Micro Finance and Poverty Relief in India

A significant amount of the underprivileged people in India is somehow able to tailor their financial resources in a way that they can realize their ambitions vis-à-vis their houses or other plans. However with the introduction of micro finance in India, the standard of living of the poor section of the population is expected to improve (Patil et al., 2008).

Micro finance services are designed to help the underprivileged to increase their earning, consolidate their properties and even gain a decent financial stability in life. The advantage of availing the micro finance credit over the more traditional means is the unwillingness of the later to serve the underprivileged people (Singh, 2008).

Grameen Bank: A Role Model in Microfinance

Yet another monsoon season was approaching; but Joshuna Begum (Begum) unlike her neighbors was not worried about her house getting damaged during the monsoon. Her house now had a tin roof, mud walls and wooden windows, a luxury in rural Bangladesh. Earlier, Begum’s house had a straw roof and bamboo walls, which used to get damaged in the monsoon season, forcing the whole family to live in the kitchen. She got her hut repaired with a loan from the Bangladesh Grameen Bank (Grameen Bank).

Begum wasn’t the only one; there were thousands of people in rural Bangladesh who had improved their living conditions with the help of the microfinance programs of Grameen Bank, a pioneer in microfinance. Grameen Bank helped thousands of poor Bangladeshi women to improve their lives by extending loans to them to start their own enterprises. By 2003, it was reported that between 33-48% of Grameen Bank borrowers had moved above the poverty line. By 2003, with 1,170 branches across Bangladesh, Grameen Bank was seen as a role model for microfinance all over the world.

The Grameen Bank model was replicated across the world. not only in developing countries like India, Pakistan, and Vietnam, but even in developed countries such as Australia and the USA, where similar schemes were set up to improve the lives of the urban poor. However, the Grameen Bank also attracted criticism from the media and economists all over world.

Analysts pointed out that there was no proper monitoring of how the loans were utilized; it was reported that the loans availed of by women were used largely for consumption rather than for investment purposes. Analysts also pointed out that the accounting methods used by Grameen Bank were not in accordance with industry standards, and that the bank did not provide full details about its financial position and loan repayments position.

Background Note

In the mid-1970s, Professor Muhammad Yunus (Yunus), then Head of the Rural Economics Program at the University of Chittagong, observed that banks did not extend their credit schemes to the rural poor as they were not considered creditworthy. In this situation, the rural poor were forced to approach moneylenders who charged exorbitant rates of interest. In 1976, Yunus launched The Grameen Bank Project, on an experimental basis to study the framework of banking services for the rural poor. The objectives of the Grameen Bank Project were:

l Providing banking services to the rural poor l Eliminating exploitation of the rural poor by moneylenders Facilitating self-employment projects for unemployed rural people l Making women self-reliant by providing them opportunities through Grameen Bank l To reverse the vicious cycle of . low income, low saving & low investment, into a new cycle of .more credit, more investment, more income.. To start with, Yunus took loans from commercial banks and extended the money to 42 needy women in Jobra village in Chittagong district. The project spread to surrounding villages between 1976 and 1979. However, bankers were skeptical about the project and argued that it was initially successful because Yunus implemented it around the university campus where he had a good reputation. In order to convince bankers about the project’s long-term viability, Yunus took two years leave from the university and started working in the Tangail district. The Bangladesh Central Bank provided financial support for the Tangail project and Yunus was appointed as the Project Director.

The project was started in 1979. With the successful implementation of the Grameen Bank project in the Tangail district, it was extended to other districts in the country. By 1980, Grameen Bank had disbursed $1.10 million as loans to the rural poor. In 1983, Grameen Bank was given the status of an independent bank by a special ordinance of the Bangladesh Government. Initially, government contributed around 60% of the bank’s capital and bank members held the remaining 40%. However, by 2003, government held only 7% and members held a 93% stake in the bank. Initially, Grameen Bank raised funds through bonds issued to the commercial banks and it also borrowed from Central Bank at subsidized interest rates. Grameen Bank also got funds from international agencies like the World Bank and the Ford Foundation. Foreign governments also provided funds for the Grameen Bank at subsidized rates.

In the late 1980s, Grameen Bank diversified into a number of different fields. It started leasing unutilized and underutilized fishing ponds and irrigation pumps. At the same time, it also started training and extending support to people from other developing countries to replicate the Grameen Bank model in their countries.

When it was successful in leasing fishing ponds to the poor, Grameen Bank started expanding its nonbanking activities. The Grameen Fisheries Foundation and the Grameen Krishi Foundation were formed to oversee the leasing of fisheries and irrigation pumps. In 1989, the Grameen Trust was formed to provide training and support to people from other countries to start micro finance programs.

By the mid-1990s, Grameen Bank had expanded its activities to areas such as venture capital, textile industry and Internet Service Provider (ISP). All the non-banking ventures of Grameen bank were grouped under the Grameen Family.

By 2002, Grameen Bank had 2.4 million borrowers (95% of them were women) and its activities were spread across 41,000 villages with over 1,100 branches. By August 2002, it had disbursed cumulative loans of $3708.22 millions and the loan repayment rate was reported to be around 95%.

The Success Story of Grameen Bank

The Grameen Bank model was one of the most widely researched microfinance models all over world. The Bank had four tiers, the lowest level being branch office and the highest level being the head office. The branch office supervised all the ground activities of the bank such as organizing target groups, supervising the credit process and sanctioning loans to members. For every 15-22 villages, a branch was set up with a manager and staff. An area office supervised around 10-15 branch offices. Program officers assisted the area office to supervise the utilization of loans and their recovery. All area offices were under the purview of a Zonal Office. Each zonal office supervised around 10-13 area offices and all zonal offices reported to the head office situated in Dhaka.

Grameen Bank operated on the principles of mutual trust, supervision, accountability and member participation. Unlike commercial banks, which granted credit on the basis of collateral security, Grameen Bank did not demand any security for extending credit. The interest charged by Grameen Bank was higher than that charged by commercial banks, but lower than the interest charged by moneylenders. The difference between the interest earned by the Grameen Bank and interests paid by it on the loans taken from commercial banks was used to cover the operational costs of the Bank.

When Grameen Bank started, many felt that it would soon fail; but on the contrary the bank expanded its operations very rapidly. From 15,000 borrowers in 1980, the membership increased to 100,000 in 1984; by 1991 it had 910,842 members, and by 2002, the number increased to 2.3 million. From a figure of US $498 in 1976, the bank’s total disbursements increased to US $170.39 million in August 2002.

The loan repayment rate was reported to be 95%. The high repayment rate was probably a result of peer group pressure, and the Grameen Bank’s rule . that for availing of fresh loans, earlier loans had to be repaid. Another important factor that led to high repayments of loans was social pressure. Creditors. knocking at the door for loan repayments was considered disgraceful among Bangladeshis. It is believed that the above factors led to the success of Grameen Bank, which also succeeded in improving the lives of its members. Many research studies indicate that Grameen Bank bought positive changes in the lives of thousands of rural Bangladeshis. The landless poor benefited the most from the Grameen Bank movement. The landless poor, who earlier worked as agricultural laborers, acquired land for their own farming activities

after becoming Grameen Bank members. According to a World Bank study conducted in 1994, Grameen Bank had improved the position of women in rural Bangladesh. Women members of Grameen Bank were more confident and socially aware than their non-Grameen Bank counterparts. Grameen Bank members even took active part in politics. In the 1997 local elections, more than 2,000 Grameen Bank women members were elected to local civic bodies.

Grameen Bank also encouraged the rural poor to get educated. It provided educational loans to its members to enable their children to go to school and college. According to reports, the rate of school going girls among Grameen Bank member families was 57% higher than that in non-member families (www.grameen-info.org, en.wikipedia.org).

Global Acceptance of Microfinance

It is claimed that this new paradigm of unsecured small scale financial service provision helps poor people take advantage of economic opportunities, expand their income, smoothen their consumption requirement, reduce vulnerability and also empowers them. Former World Bank President James Wolfensohn said .Microfinance fits squarely into the Bank’s overall strategy. As you know, the Bank’s mission is to reduce poverty and improve living standards by promoting sustainable growth and investment in people through loans, technical assistance, and policy guidance. Microfinance contributes directly to this objective. The emphasis on microfinance is reflected in microfinance being a key feature in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs).

Microfinance & MDG

Micro credit Summit Campaign.s 2005 report argues that the campaign offers much needed hope for achieving the Millennium Development Goals, especially relating to poverty reduction. Asian Development Bank (ADB) in its theme chapter on microfinance cites access to financial services as critical for eliminating poverty and reaching MDGs (ABD, 2004). Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Food Programme (WFP) declared that it will be possible to achieve the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG.s) by the established deadline of 2015 .if the developing and industrialized countries take action immediately. by implementing plans and projects, in which micro credit could play a major role (www.iran-daily.com).

 

 

 

 

Questions for Discussion

1. According to analysts, Grameen Bank was successful because of its unique working model. Analyze the working model of Grameen Bank and discuss how it differs from the traditional commercial banking model?

2. Many analysts criticized Grameen Bank for its style of functioning. Analyze the drawbacks of the Grameen Bank model.

3. .Microfinance has tremendous potential as an instrument for poverty reduction (MDG1).. Comment upon the statement.

4. Do you suggest that the Grameen Bank model for poverty alleviation be emulated in other developing countries? Explain with reasons.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Collectively, reserves, cash items in process of collection, and deposits at other banks, are referred to as____________in a bank balance sheet.

a) secondary reserves

b) cash items

c) liquid items

d) compensating balances

 

2. The U.S. banking system has been labeled a dual system because

a) banks offer both checking and savings accounts.

b) it actually includes both banks and thrift institutions.

c) it is regulated by both federal and state governments.

d) it was established during the Civil War, thus making it necessary to create separate regulatory bodies for the North and South.

 

3. When a bank is well-capitalized, the bank has_____to lose if it fails and is thus_____likely to pursue risky activities.

a) more: more

b) more; less

c) less; more

d) less; less

 

4. Loans made by the Federal Reserve to depository institutions are in the form of:

a) reserves

b) Cash

c) Float

d) capital accounts

 

5. The predominant source of the net income of the Federal Reserve derives from:

a) priced services it makes available to depository institutions

b) loans to depository institutions

c) its portfolio of U.S. government securities

d) profits earned in the foreign exchange market

 

6. Members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System obtain their positions through:

a) appointment by the directors of the Federal Reserve banks

b) appointment by the Chairman of the Board of Governors

c) appointment by the U.S. President and approval by the Senate

d) appointment by the U.S. Senate and approval by the President

 

7. The Federal Reserve pays to the U.S. Treasury approximately what portion of its gross income?

a) 10 percent

b) 50 percent

c) 75 percent

d) 90 percent

 

8. The Federal Reserve System was created:

a) to conduct monetary policy for purposes of stabilizing the economy

b) primarily to hold large quantities of the ever expanding government debt

c) to provide liquidity to the banking system in time of crisis

d) to supervise all national banks

 

9. The regional Federal Reserve banks

a) Establish the discount rate.

b) Ration discount loans to banks.

c) Clear checks.

d) do all of the above.

 

10. Power within the Federal Reserve is essentially located in

a) New York.

b) Washington, D.C.

c) Boston.

d) San Francisco.

 

11. Banks create money when they:

a) reduce loans and sell securities

b) expand loans and sell securities

c) reduce loans and buy securities

d) expand loans and buy securities

 

12. Which of the following directly increases the money supply?

a) the public withdraws cash from banks

b) the public deposits cash into banks

c) banks sell securities to dealers

d) none of the above

 

13. The demand for the monetary base is composed of demand by:

a) banks and the U.S. Treasury

b) banks and the Federal Reserve

c) banks and the public

d) the Treasury and the Federal Reserve

 

14. The monetary base is comprised of

a) currency in circulation and Federal Reserve notes.

b) currency in circulation and government securities.

c) currency in circulation and reserves.

d) reserves and government securities.

 

15. The sum of vault cash and bank deposits with the Fed minus required reserves is called

a) the monetary base.

b) the money supply.

c) excess reserves.

d) total reserves.

 

16. When the Fed wants to reduce reserves in the banking system, it will

a) purchase government bonds.

b) extend discount loans to banks.

c) print more currency.

d) sell government bonds.

 

 

17. Which of the following are found on the asset side of the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet?

a) Treasury securities

b) Treasury deposits

c) Discount loans

d) Only (a) and (c) of the above.

 

18. Which of the following are found on the liability side of the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet?

a) Cash items in the process of collection.

b) Deferred availability cash items.

c) Gold.

d) All of the above.

 

19. An important routine function of a Federal Reserve Bank is to

a) supervise the liquidation of the assets of bankrupt commercial banks

b) help large banks develop financial relationships with smaller banks

c) advise banks as to the most profitable ways of buying securities

d) provide facilities by which banks may clear and collect checks

 

20. Open market operations are of two types:

a) defensive and offensive.

b) dynamic and reactionary.

c) actionary and passive.

d) dynamic and defensive.

 

21. If the Federal Reserve wants to inject reserves into the banking system, it will usually

a) purchase government securities.

b) Raise the discount rate.

c) Sell government securities.

d) Lower reserve requirements.

e) Do either (a) or (b) of the above.

 

22. When the Fed engages in a matched sale-purchase with a bank, it first______ securities which the bank agrees to______ back to the Fed within a few days.

a) buys; buy

b) buys; sell

c) sells; buy

d) sells; sell

 

23. When the Fed wants to decrease bank reserves on a temporary basis, it engages in a_______.

a) outright purchase of securities from banks

b) outright sale of securities from banks

c) reverse repurchase agreement with banks

d) repurchase agreement with banks

 

24. Which of the following is true about the Federal Reserve System?

a) There are 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks

b) The head of the U.S. Treasury also chairs the Federal Reserve Board

c) There are 14 members of the Federal Reserve Board

d) The Federal Reserve receives its operating funds from the federal government

 

25. Which of the following is not considered to be a goal of monetary policy?

a) Fair wages

b) High employment

c) Price stability

d) Economic growth

 

26. The U.S. Treasury Secretary who attempted to establish a nationwide banking system in 1791 was

a) Benjamin Franklin

b) Thomas Jefferson

c) Alexander Hamilton

d) Abraham Lincoln

 

27. One large company that holds many different banks as subsidiaries is called a (an)

a) investment bank

b) euro bank

c) bank holding company

d) deposit bank

 

28. Which of the following is a fundamental commercial bank accounting identity?

a) assets plus capital equals liabilities

b) assets plus liabilities equals capital

c) assets minus liabilities equals capital

d) none of the above

 

 

29. Which of the following is a source of commercial bank funds?

a) deposits

b) capital

c) non-deposit borrowing

d) all of the above

 

30. On the commercial bank balance sheet, which of the following is an asset?

a) capital accounts

b) deposits with Federal Reserve

c) transactions deposits

d) all of the above

 

31. The securities purchased by a bank for investment purposes are known as

a) primary reserves

b) secondary reserves

c) equity capital

d) discounts

 

32. Which of the following bank assets is the most liquid?

a) Consumer loans.

b) State and local government securities.

c) Physical capital.

d) U.S. government securities.

 

33. Tools of bank liability management include:

a) buying federal funds

b) issuing negotiable CDS

c) issuing repurchase agreements

d) all of the above

 

34. Commercial banks obtain funds by:

a) issuing demand deposits

b) borrowing from other banks

c) issuing ownership claims (equity)

d) all of the above

 

35. A bank’s primary reserves include:

a) vault cash

b) deposits at the Federal Reserve

c) Treasury bills, notes, and bonds

d) a and b

 

 

36. Financial intermediaries promote efficiency and thereby increase people’s wealth

a) by reducing the transaction cost of linking together lender and borrowers.

b) to the extent that they help solve problems created by adverse selection and moral hazard.

c) by providing additional jobs.

d) because of only (a) and (b) of the above.

 

37. Which of the following is the true about bank statement?

a) Total Bank Assets = Total Bank Liabilities + Bank Capital

b) Total Bank Liabilities = Bank Capital

c) Total Bank Assets +Total Bank Liabilities = Bank Capital

d) Total Bank Assets = Total Bank Liabilities – Bank Capital

 

38. The Federal Reserve System was created:

a) to conduct monetary policy for purposes of stabilizing the economy

b) primarily to hold large quantities of the ever expanding government debt

c) to provide liquidity to the banking system in time of crisis

d) to supervise all national banks

 

39. The monetary authorities in the country (that is the central bank of the country) tend to influence interest rates by increasing or reducing the ____________ in the system.

a) Liquidity

b) Regulations

c) Control

d) None of the above

 

 

40. The main function of a commercial bank can be segregated into:

a. payment system

b. Financial intermediation

c. Financial Services

(a) (i), (ii), (iii)

(b) (i), (iii)

(c) (i), (ii)

(d) (ii), (iii)