Assignment – A
Question 1(a) What do you understand by the concept of conservatism ? Why is it also called the concept of prudence? Why is it not applied as strongly today as it used to be in the Past?
Question 1(b) What is a Balance Sheet? How does a Funds Flow Statement differ from a Balance Sheet? Enumerate the items which are usually shown in a Balance Sheet and a Funds Flow Statement.
Question 2(a) Discuss the importance of ratio analysis for inter-firm and intra-firm comparisons including circumstances responsible for its limitations. If any
Question 2(b) Why do you understand by the term ‘pay-out ratio’? What factors are taken into consideration while determining pay-out ratio? Should a company follow a fixed pay-out ratio policy? Discuss fully.
Question 3. From the ratios and other data given below for Bharat Auto Accessories Ltd. indicate your interpretation of the company’s financial position, operating efficiency and profitability.
Year I Year II Year III
Current Ratio 265% 278% 302%
Acid Test Ratio 115% 110% 99%
Working Capital Turnover (times) 2.75 3.00 3.25
Receivables Turnover 9.83 8.41 7.20
Average Collection Period (Days) 37 43 50
Inventory to Working Capital 95% 100% 110%
Inventory Turnover (times) 6.11 6.01 5.41
Income per Equity Share 5.10 4.05 2.50
Net Income to Net Worth
Operating Expenses to Net Sales 22% 23% 25%
Sales increase during the year 10% 16% 23%
Cost of goods sold to Net Sales 70% 71% 73%
Dividend per share Rs. 3 Rs.3 Rs.3
Fixed Assets to Net Worth 16.4% 18% 22.7%
Net Profit on Net Sales 7.03% 5.09% 2.0%
Question 4: Bose has supplied the following information about his business for the year ended 31 st March, 2004 is as follows:
Assets and Liabilities
On 1st April 2003
On 31st March, 2004
To Opening balance
By Payments to creditors
To Cash sales
To Receipt from debtors
To Misc. receipts
By Sunday office expenses
To Loan from Dass @ 9% per annum (taken on 1.10.2003)
By Machinery purchased (on 1.10.2003)
By Closing balance
Discount allowed totaled Rs.7,000 and discount received was Rs. 4,000. Bad debts written off were Rs. 8,000. Depreciation was written off on furniture @5% per annum and machinery @ 10% per annum under the straight line methodof depreciation. The office expenses included Rs.5,000 paid as insurance premium for the year ending 30th June, 2004. Wages amounting to Rs.20,000 were still due on 31st March, 2004
Prepare trading and profit and loss account for the year ended 31 si March, 2004 and the balance sheet as on that date.
(a) What procedure would you adopt to study the liquidity of a business firm?
(b) Who are all the parties interested in knowing this accounting information?
(c) What ratio or other financial statement analysis technique will you adopt for this.
Assignment – B
Question 1: From the following particulars, determine the bank balance as per pass book of Priya & Co. as on 28th February 2008.
a) Credit balance as per cash book on 28th February, 2008 was Rs. 15,000
b) Interest charged by the bank up to 28th February Rs. 500 was recorded in the pass book.
c) Bank charges made by the bank Rs. 125 were also recorded only in the pass book.
d) Out of the cheques of Rs. 25,000 paid into the bank, cheques of Rs. 18,750 were cleared and credited by the bankers.
e) Two cheques of Rs. 7,500 and Rs. 15,000 were issued but out of them only one cheque of Rs. 7,500 was presented for payment upto 28th February.
f) Dividends on shares Rs. 4,500 were collected by the bankers directly, for which Priya & Co. did not have any information.
Question 2: A company manufactures a single product in its factory utilizing 600% of its capacity. The selling price and cost details are given below:
Sales (6,000 units) 5,40,000
Direct materials 96,000
Direct labour 1,20,000
Direct expenses 19,000
Selling and Distribution 25,000
12.5% of factory overheads and 20% of selling and distribution overheads are variable with production and sales. Administrative overheads are wholly fixed. Since the existing product could not achieve budgeted level for two consecutive years, the Company decides to introduce a new product with marginal investment but largely using the existing plant and machinery.
The cost estimates of the new product are as follows:
Cost elements Rs. per unit
Direct materials 16.00
Direct labour 15.00
Direct expenses 1.50
Variable factory overheads 2.00
Variable selling and distribution overheads 1.50
It is expected that 2,000 units of the new product can be sold at a price of Rs. 60 per unit. The fixed factory overheads are expected to increase by 10%, while fixed selling and distribution expenses will go up by Rs. 12,500 annually. Administrative overheads remain unchanged.
However, there will be an increase of working capital to the extent of Rs. 75,000, which would take the total cost of the project to Rs. 8.75 lakh.
The company considers that 20% pre-tax and interest return on investment is the minimum acceptable to justify any new investment.
You are required to
(a) Decide whether the new product be introduced.
(b) Make any further observation/recommendations about profitability of the company on the basis of the above data, after making assumption that the present investment is Rs. 8 lakh.
Question 3 (a): What is Master Budget? How it is different from Cash Budget?
Question 3 (b) What are the various methods of inventory valuation? Explain the effect of inventory valuation methods on profit during inflation. What are the provisions of Accounting Standard 2 (AS-2) with regards to inventory valuation?
Geeta & Company has experienced increased production costs. The primary area of concern identified by management is direct labor. The company is considering adopting a standard cost system to help control labor and other costs. Useful historical data are not available because detailed production records have not been maintained. To establish labor standards, Geeta & Company has retained an engineering consulting firm. After a complete study of the work process, the consultants recommended a labor standard of one unit of production every 30 minutes, or 16 units per day for each worker. The consultants further advised that Geeta’s wage rates were below the prevailing rate of Rs per hour ‘Geeta’s production vice-president thought that this labor standard was too tight, and from experience with the labor force, believed that a labor standard of 40 minutes per unit or 12 units per day for each worker would be more reasonable, the president of Geeta & Company believed the standard should be set at a high level to motivate the workers and to provide adequate information for control and reasonable cost comparison. After much discussion, management decided to use a dual standard. The labor standard of one unit every 30 minutes, recommended by the consulting firm, would be employed in the plant as a motivation device, while a cost standard of 40 minutes per unit would be used in reporting. Management also concluded that the workers would not be informed of the cost standard used for reporting purposes. The production vice president conducted several sessions prior to implementation in the plant, informing the workers of the new standard cool system and answering questions. The new standards were not related to incentive pay but were introduced when wages were increased to Rs 7 per hour. The standard cost system was implemented on January 1, 2007. At the end of six months of operation, these statistics on labor performance were presented to executive management:
Direct labor hours
Variance based on labor standard (one unit each 30 minutes) Rs.3150
RS.5.950U Rs6,300 U
Variance based on cost standard (one unit each 40 minutes) Rs.2,800F
Rs.933 U RS.1.167 U
*U = Unfavorable; F = Favorable
Materials quality, labor mix, and plant facilities and conditions have not changed to a significant extent during the six month period.
1. Describe the impact of different types of standards on motivations, and specifically, the likely effect on motivation of adopting the labor standard recommended for Geeta & Company by the engineering firm.
Please advise the company in reviewing the standards.
Assignment – C
1. Which of the following statements is true concerning assets?
(a). They are recorded at cost and adjusted for inflation.
(b). They are recorded at market value for financial reporting because historical cost is arbitrary.
(c). Accounting principles require that companies report assets on the income statement.
(d). Assets are measured using the cost concept.
2. When the concept of conservation is applied to the Balance Sheet, it results in
(a). Overstatement of Capital
(b). Understatement of Capital
(c). Overstatement of Assets
(d). Understatement of Assets.
3. Which of the following is a correct expression of the accounting equation?
(a). Assets – Liabilities + Owners’ Equity
(b). Assets = Liabilities – Owners’ Equity
(c). Assets + Owners’ Equity = Liabilities
(d). Assets = Liabilities + Owners’ Equity
4. How is the balance sheet linked to the other financial statements?
(a). The beginning retained earnings balance on the statement of retained earnings becomes the amount of retained earnings reported on the balance sheet.
(b). Retained earnings is added to total assets and reported on the balance sheet.
(c). Net income increases retained earnings on the statement of retained earnings, which ultimately increases retained earnings on the balance sheet.
(d). There is no link between the balance sheet and the other statements.
5. The process of recording the economic effects of business transactions in a book of original entry:
(a). Double entry system
6. If the sum of the debits and credits in a trial balance is not equal, then
(a). There is no concern because the two amounts are not meant to be equal.
(b). The chart of accounts also does not balance.
(c). It is safe to proceed with the preparation of financial statements.
(d). Most likely an error was- made in posting journal entries to the general ledger or in preparing the trial balance.
7. Z Ltd had Rs. 1800 of supplies on hand at January 1, 2006. During 2006, supplies with a cost of Rs. 7,000 were purchased. At December 31, 2006, the actual supplies on hand amounts to Rs. 2,300. After the adjustments are recorded and posted at December 31, 2006, the balances in the Supplies and Supplies Expense accounts will be:
(a). Supplies, Rs7, 000; Supplies Expense, Rs2, 300.
(b). Supplies, Rs1, 800; Supplies Expense, Rs7, 000.
(c). Supplies, Rs2, 300; Supplies Expense, Rs6, 500.
(d). Supplies, Rs2, 300; Supplies Expense, Rs3, 900.
8. In the statement of changes in financial position, uses of resources are defined as:
(a). Transaction debits
(b). Fund increases
(c). Transaction credits
(d). Fund decreases
9. Most firms elected to define funds in the statement of changes in financial position as:
(b). Working capital
(c). Current assets
(d). Owners’ Equity
10. The funds flow statement included:
(a). All sources and uses of resources.
(b). Only cash transactions.
(c). Only transactions affecting current assets.
(d). Only transactions affecting fund accounts.
11. Which of the following is not an example of a non-fund adjustment to income required in preparing the statement of changes in financial position when funds were defined as working capital?
(a). Depreciation expense
(b). Gain from asset disposal
(c). Interest expense
(d). Amortization of premium on debt
12. In the cash flow statement, cash is defined as:
(a). Quick assets
(b). Literal cash on hand or on demand deposit, plus cash equivalents.
(c). Literal cash on hand or on demand deposit, plus marketable securities.
(d). All of the above
13. Flexible budgets
(a). Accommodate changes in the inflation rate.
(b). Accommodate changes in activity levels.
(c). Are used to evaluate capacity utilization.
(d). Are static budgets that have been revised for changes in prices.
14. Which of the following statements regarding changing inventory methods is true?
(a). A change in inventory methods can be justified if the change is made to better match profits with revenue.
(b). The effect of changing inventory method does not need to be disclosed.
(c). Tax advantages are valid justification for changing inventory methods.
(d). One place that the reader of an annual report would be able to identify that a company changed inventory methods is the footnotes to the financial statements.
Use the information presented below to answer the questions that follow. Solid Co. received a non-interest-bearing note from Y Ltd. on October 1, 2006. The amount of the note due at the maturity date is Rs6, 200. The note was accepted by Solid for merchandise sold to Bedrock with a selling price of Rs6, 000. The note is due in 3 months.
15. The difference of Rs200 between the amount of the note (Rs. 6,200) and the sales price of the merchandise (Rs. 6,000)
(a). Is the interest explicitly included in the amount of the note.
(b). Will be recorded in a contra account, Discount on Notes Receivable, by Co.
(c). Will be recorded as interest revenue on October 1, 2006.
(d). Is an error made in preparing the note.
16. Which of the following combination of financial statements would provide the most in-depth information to help under stand a company’s liquidity?
(a). Income statement and statement of cash flows.
(b). Balance sheet and statement of cash flows.
(c). Balance sheet and income statement.
(d). Statement of retained earnings and statement of cash flows.
17. Y Ltd sold equipment for Rs4, 000. This resulted in a Rs1, 500 loss. What is the impact of this sale on the working capital?
(a). Reduces working capital.
(b). Increases working capital.
(c). Has no affect on working capital at all.
(d). The increase offsets the decrease.
18. If a company’s asset turnover rate increased from 2005 to 2006, which of the following cone usions can be made?
(a). The company was less efficient during 2006 in using its assets to produce profits.
(b). The company produced more sales in 2006 for each dollar invested in assets.
(c). The company was more profitable in 2005.
(d). The company is over-invested in assets in 2006.
19. X Ltd’s master budget calls for the production of 6,000 units of product monthly; The master budget includes indirect labor of Rs. 396,000 annually; X Ltd considers indirect labor to be a variable cost. During the month of September, 5,600 units of product were produced, and indirect labor costs of Rs. 30,970 were incurred. A performance report utilizing flexible budgeting would report a flexible budget variance for indirect labor of:-
(a). Rs. 170 unfavorable.
(b). Rs. 170 favorable.
(c). Rs. 2,030 unfavorable.
(d). Rs. 2,030 favorable.
20. Which of the following is not an advantage for using standard costs for variance analysis?
(a). Standards simplify product costing.
(b). Standards are developed using past costs and are available at a relatively low cost.
(c). Standards are usually expressed on a per unit basis.
(d). Standards can take into account expected changes planned to occur in the budgeted period.
21. The main purpose of cost accounting is to-
(a). Maximize profits,
(b). Provide information to management for decision making
(c). help in fixing selling price
(d). To watch cash flows
22. Conversion cost is total of:
(a). Direct material and direct wages
(b). Direct material, direct wages, and production overheads
(c). Direct wages and production overheads.
(d). None of the above.
23. A cost, which does not involve cash outlay, is called:
(a). Historical cost
(b). Imputed cost
(c). Out of pocket cost.
(d). Explicit cost.
24. Committed fixed costs are those, which:
(a). Arise from yearly budget appropriations
(b). Are incurred because management can afford
(c). Arise from additional capacity.
(d). All of above
25. Cost of research undertaken at the request of the customer should be:
(a). Charged to costing profit and loss account
(b). Charged to selling overheads
(c). Recovered from the customer.
(d). All of above
26. Salaries due for the month of March will appear
(a). On the Receipt side of the Cash Book
(b). On the Payment side of the Cash Book
(c). As a contra entry
(d). Nowhere in the Cash Book.
27. Liabilities of business are Rs. 11,220 and owner’s equity is Rs. 15,000. The assets of the business will be.
(a). Rs. 3,780.
(b). Rs. 26,220.
(c). Rs. 11,220.
(d). Rs. 15,000.
28. An entry of Rs. 320 has been debited to Eknath’s account at Rs. 230. If is an error of
29. Unearned revenues are:
(c). Temporary accounts.
(d). Both a and b above.
30. The revenue recognition principle requires that sales revenues be recognized:
(a). When cash is received.
(b). When the merchandise is ordered.
(c). When the goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.
(d). None of the above.
31. All of the following are “other receivables” except:
(a). Petty cash.
(b). Interest receivable.
(c). Income taxes refundable.
(d). Advances to employees.
32. Depreciation is depsndent on a number of estimates. When a change in an estimate is required, the change is ma
(a). in the current year.
(b). in the future year.
(c). to prior periods.
(d). both a and b above.
33. In order to pay a dividend:
(a). the corporation must have adequate retained earnings.
(b). the board of directors must declare a dividend.
(c). the corporation must have adequate cash.
34. Cash flow activities that include the cash effects of transactions that create revenues and expenses and thus enter into the determination of net income are referred to as:
(a). Investing activities.
(b). Financing activities.
(c). Operating activities.
(d). All of the above.
35. All of the following are used in preparing a statement of cash flows except:
(a). A trial balance.
(b). Comparative balance sheet.
(c). Current income statement.
(d). Additional information.
36. Depreciation is result of
(d). All of the above.
37. Outstanding Expenses are the examples of
(a). Personal Accounts.
(b). Real Accounts.
(c). Nominal Accounts.
(d). None of the above.
38. Liquid Assets are inclusive of all current assets except
(b). Prepaid Expenses.
(d). Both (a) and (b) above.
39. Management Accounting is mainly related to
(a). Presentation of Figures from Financial Accounting.
(b). Presentation of Figures from Cost Accounting.
(c). Both (a) and (b) above.
40. Variance Analysis is done with regards to actuals with-
(b). Budgeted Figures.
(d). All of the above.